Universe
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CERN - ATLAS Visitor Centre, Geneva, Switzerland
CERN - ATLAS Visitor Centre, Geneva, Switzerland

uploaded by: Daneliya

Description: In the Universe everything is made of particles. This we know for sure. But, whether we know all about them?
The scientists from more than 100 nations around the world, working at CERN, seeking answers through unique based instrument - the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - the most poweful accelerator ever built. By creating the right conditions for accelerating and implementation of collisions between particles, are produce new particles whose characteristics make possible to penetrate the secrets of creating, structure and origin of matter in the Universe. Through the Project ATLAS Experiment are simulate conditions close to those in the Universe after the Big Bang before about 13.7 billion years in search of answers to fundamental questions about the formation of matter, antimatter, dark matter, dark energy, black holes….

Four elementary particles are sufficient to constitute the world around us: quark up (U-quark), quark down (D-quark), the electron and the neutrino. There are other types of elementary particles in the Universe, such as cosmic rays. These are streams of invisible particles created during the ultra energy particles entering the Earth's atmosphere. There are essentially 12 types of particles, forming two broad groups: quarks and leptons.

The epochal discovery of the Higgs boson allow scientists to complete the Standard Model of physics. But even after this discovery, we know only 4% of the Universe. Ordinary matter is composed of elementary fermions (quarks and leptons). Bosons have zero rest mass and determine the fields that are not considered ordinary matter. Dark matter is inaccessible to observation with modern methods (not broadcast and does not reflect enough electromagnetic waves), have unknown composition, but can be detected indirectly because of its gravitational effects on visible matter, which gives grounds to assume that this "substance" have a mass several times greater than the mass of the visible matter. For now considered that the main component of dark matter is a new kind of particle, collectively referred not-baryonic dark matter. The density of ordinary baryons and photons in the universe is estimated to be 1 hydrogen atom per cubic meter of space. Only about 4% of the total energy density in the Universe can be seen directly (indirectly assessed by its gravity action). About 22% is supposed to be dark matter, while the remaining 74% is thought to consist of dark energy.
By these "4% knowledge" of the Universe we're on top of scientific and technological development of human civilization. How does it seem the endless Cosmos, if we can reach 50% knowledge of the Universe!

Source of information: Official information materials and publications of CERN.

photo - personal archive

Recommended links:
http://home.web.cern.ch/

http://atlas.ch/

http://www.interactions.org/video/atlas-control-room-244

http://www.lifeinuniverse.org/index1.htm

http://www.bmbf.de/en/1431.php

http://cern-discoveries.web.cern.ch/cern-discoveries/Courier/HeavyLight/Heavylight.html

http://www.exploratorium.edu/origins/cern/ideas/antimatter.html

http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-60740

http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age16-19/Nuclear%20physics/Nuclear%20structure/text/Quarks_/index.html

http://science.howstuffworks.com/31705-master-of-the-universe-cern-experiment-video.htm

http://www.mapsorama.com/map-of-cern-and-lhc/

http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/spotlight/SpotlightCool-en.html

http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/Public/Welcome.html

http://education.jlab.org/qa/quark_05.html

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/04/mass-of-the-common-quark-finally.html

http://www.physics.ox.ac.uk/documents/PUS/dis/fundam.htm

http://www.hep.uiuc.edu/home/tml/SciAmTop.pdf

CERN - ATLAS Visitor Centre, Geneva, Switzerland

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