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Description: In 1964 the international scientific community was excited by three self-published scientific articles in the research of physics of elementary particles. These publications describe in a similar way how elementary particles can acquire mass by interacting with a new type field that is deserved to be called the field of "Brout-Englert-Guralnik-Hagen-Higgs-Kibble". Is considered that this is the date of theoretical discovery of the Higgs particle (Higgs boson), named after its inventor - Peter Ware Higgs, British theoretical physicist and professor at the University of Edinburgh.
In 1995, CERN simulated Higgs particle decaying into 4 muons.
On 03/14/2013, at the Moriond Conference of ATLAS and CMS collaborations at CERN, were presented the latest results, specifying the characteristics of the particle, the discovery of which CERN scientists announced in July 2012. And scientists believe that the results indicate that particle discovered is a Higgs boson, which physicists looking for the last a missing link to complete The Standard Model of particle physics, developed by Einstein. This is the elementary particle, which is supposed to forward mass to other elementary particles.
For the first time by the Large Hadron Collider, the Higgs boson been observed experimentally in July 2012. The researchers analyzed the data from collisions by Large Hadron Collider and validate the existence of the Higgs boson certainly Sigma 5 extent - extremely rare phenomenon, which makes the statistical error almost impossible and is the threshold at which it can be announced discovery. On 5 July 2012, at the Conference of Physicists in Melbourne, the hall burst into applause when CERN's physicists announced results from Sigma 5 level.
The Standard Model of particle physics assumes that this particle must have a positive charge and zero spin to meet the theoretical requirements of the Standard Model. For the period from July 2012 to March 2013 were collected twice as much the experimental data from the period before that have shown that the particle has exactly these properties - zero spin and positive charge. And based on studies of the interaction of this particle with other elementary particles scientists consider that this is precisely the Higgs boson.
For now remains for researchers to clarify exactly what type of boson case. Is this really the Higgs boson of the Standard Model or it is likely to be the lightest of several other types of bosons, beyond the Standard Model according to the alternative physical theories.
According to theoretical calculations by the Standard Model, the Higgs boson is a heavy elementary particle with a mass 130 times greater than the mass of the proton and has a very short lifetime - about 10 ̄²³ fractions of a second.
Furthermore, the experimental difficulties for the registration of Higgs boson comes from the fact that it is necessary to protons collide at very high energy, and only once in 10 billion collisions could create a Higgs boson. Due to the very short lifetime of Higgs boson, can be observed experimentally by registering is not a particle itself, but its decay products, which are either stable or have a longer lifetime. The typical frequency of production a Higgs boson that has decayed (for example) to two Z bosons each of which has decayed to an electron-positron pair is extremely rare: once in 10¹³ = 10 000 000 000 000 interactions.
Before the CERN research teams is still much dedicated work, but one thing is certain - that we live in very interesting times and we are contemporaries of exceptional scientific knowledge, which will open an unsuspected worlds for the coming generations of scientists.
Source of information: Official information materials and publications of CERN.
photo - personal archive by source-materials (simulated image) of CERN (Credit: CERN).